II. Biological Background
All living organisms consist of cells. In each cell there is the same set of chromosomes. Chromosomes are strings of DNA and serves as a model for the whole organism. A chromosome consist of genes, blocks of DNA. Each gene encodes a particular protein. Basically can be said, that each gene encodes a trait, for example color of eyes. Possible settings for a trait (e.g. blue, brown) are called alleles. Each gene has its own position in the chromosome. This position is called locus.
Complete set of genetic material (all chromosomes) is called genome. Particular set of genes in genome is called genotype. The genotype is with later development after birth base for the organism's phenotype, its physical and mental characteristics, such as eye color, intelligence etc.
During reproduction, first occurs recombination (or crossover). Genes from parents form in some way the whole new chromosome. The new created offspring can then be mutated. Mutation means, that the elements of DNA are a bit changed. This changes are mainly caused by errors in copying genes from parents.
The fitness of an organism is measured by success of the organism in its life.